International Journal of Drug Policy - 2014

Volume 25 Issue 3 May 2014

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596 K.E. Tobin et al. / International Journal of Drug Policy 25 (2014) 591–597 substance use and risk may occur and exploring how place may confer safety or risk. Associations between social networks and place-type were observed. The social network members at bars and clubs were younger, gay-identified, and friends compared to residence places. The greater degree of homogeneity of the social network members at bars and clubs, lend support for efforts to expand peer-based interventions in bars/clubs, which rely on a credible and similar peer to diffuse information and change social norms, such as D- Up, an adaptation of the popular opinion leader model (Jones et al., 2008). Limitations of this analysis should be noted. First, data came from a convenience sample of AA MSM, limiting generalizability of the findings. There is the possibility of selection bias due to our recruitment strategy which relied on virtual postings in addition to advertising at fixed geographical sites. The spatial location of drug/alcohol places was based on the self-reported addresses. Our assessment of substance use places did not distinguish between drug and alcohol use nor the degree of use, such as binge-drinking places versus social drinking or drinking one beer as opposed to taking one dose of crack. These limitations aside, this study reports that AA MSM alco- hol and drug use is spatially and socially dependent. Examining how specific social network members and place interact is a more nuanced approach and has implications for both drug pol- icy and public health intervention, such as funding allocation and placement of public health resources. MSM are embedded within social networks and environmental contexts that must be consid- ered in order to extend beyond individual behaviour frameworks (Degenhardt et al., 2010; Gorbach et al., 2009; Rhodes, 2009). Conflict of interest We have no conflicts of interest to declare. References Bachmann, L. H., Grimley, D. 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