International Journal of Drug Policy - 2014

Volume 25 Issue 3 May 2014

Issue link: http://digitalreprints.elsevier.com/i/364061

Contents of this Issue

Navigation

Page 95 of 153

596 K.E. Tobin et al. / International Journal of Drug Policy 25 (2014) 591–597 substance use and risk may occur and exploring how place may confer safety or risk. Associations between social networks and place-type were observed. The social network members at bars and clubs were younger, gay-identified, and friends compared to residence places. The greater degree of homogeneity of the social network members at bars and clubs, lend support for efforts to expand peer-based interventions in bars/clubs, which rely on a credible and similar peer to diffuse information and change social norms, such as D- Up, an adaptation of the popular opinion leader model (Jones et al., 2008). Limitations of this analysis should be noted. First, data came from a convenience sample of AA MSM, limiting generalizability of the findings. There is the possibility of selection bias due to our recruitment strategy which relied on virtual postings in addition to advertising at fixed geographical sites. The spatial location of drug/alcohol places was based on the self-reported addresses. Our assessment of substance use places did not distinguish between drug and alcohol use nor the degree of use, such as binge-drinking places versus social drinking or drinking one beer as opposed to taking one dose of crack. These limitations aside, this study reports that AA MSM alco- hol and drug use is spatially and socially dependent. Examining how specific social network members and place interact is a more nuanced approach and has implications for both drug pol- icy and public health intervention, such as funding allocation and placement of public health resources. MSM are embedded within social networks and environmental contexts that must be consid- ered in order to extend beyond individual behaviour frameworks (Degenhardt et al., 2010; Gorbach et al., 2009; Rhodes, 2009). Conflict of interest We have no conflicts of interest to declare. References Bachmann, L. H., Grimley, D. M., Chen, H., Aban, I., Hu, J., Zhang, S., et al. (2009). Risk behaviours in HIV-positive men who have sex with men participating in an intervention in a primary care setting. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 20(9), 607–612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/ijsa.2009.009030 BNIA.org. (2010). The Baltimore Neighborhood Indicators Alliance: Mapping. Accessed 12/17/2010, from http://www.ubalt.edu/bnia/mapping/citywide tables.html Catania, J. A., Osmond, D., Stall, R. D., Pollack, L., Paul, J. P., Blower, S., et al. (2001). The continuing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6), 907–914. Celentano, D. D., Valleroy, L. A., Sifakis, F., MacKellar, D. A., Hylton, J., Thiede, H., et al. (2006). Associations between substance use and sexual risk among very young men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(4), 265–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.olq.0000187207.10992.4e Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Prevalence and Awareness of HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men — 21 Cities, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(37), 1201–1228. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2010. Atlanta, US: Department of Health and Human Services. Colfax, G., Coates, T. J., Husnik, M. J., Huang, Y., Buchbinder, S., Koblin, B., et al. (2005). Longitudinal patterns of methamphetamine, popper (amyl nitrite), and cocaine use and high-risk sexual behavior among a cohort of San Francisco men who have sex with men. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 82(1 (Suppl. 1)), i62–i70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jurban/jti025 Crosby, G. M., Stall, R. D., Paul, J. P., Barrett, D. C., & Midanik, L. T. (1996). Condom use among gay/bisexual male substance abusers using the timeline follow-back method. Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 249–257. Degenhardt, L., Mathers, B., Vickerman, P., Rhodes, T., Latkin, C., & Hickman, M. (2010). Prevention of HIV infection for people who inject drugs: Why individual, structural, and combination approaches are needed. Lancet, 376(9737), 285–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60742-8 Diggle, P. J. (2003). Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press. Duff, C. (2011). Networks, resources and agencies: On the character and production of enabling places. Health and Place, 17(1), 149–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.09.012 Environmental Systems Research Institute. (2010). ArcGIS 9.3. Redlands, CA: Envi- ronmental Systems Research Institute. Garfein, R. S., Metzner, M., Cuevas, J., Bousman, C. A., & Patterson, T. (2010). Formative assessment of ARM-U: A modular intervention for decreasing risk behaviors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative methamphetamine-using MSM. The Open AIDS Journal, 4, 105–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874613601004030105 Gesler, W. M., Arcury, T. A., Skelly, A. H., Nash, S., Soward, A., & Dougherty, M. (2006). Identifying diabetes knowledge network nodes as sites for a diabetes prevention program. Health and Place, 12(4), 449–464. Gilbert, M. R. (1998). "Race" space, and power: The survival strategies of working poor women. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88(4), 595–621. Glover, T. D., & Parry, D. C. (2009). A third place in the everyday lives of people living with cancer: Functions of Gilda's club of greater Toronto. Health & Place, 15(1), 97–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.02.007 Gorbach, P. M., Murphy, R., Weiss, R. E., Hucks-Ortiz, C., & Shoptaw, S. (2009). Bridging sexual boundaries: Men who have sex with men and women in a street-based sample in Los Angeles. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 86(1 (Suppl. 1)), 63–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-009-9370-7 Grov, C. (2012). HIV risk and substance use in men who have sex with men surveyed in bathhouses, bars/clubs, and on craigslist.org: Venue of recruitment matters. AIDS and Behavior, 16(4), 807–817. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10461-011-9999-6 Harawa, N. T., Williams, J. K., Ramamurthi, H. C., Manago, C., Avina, S., & Jones, M. (2008). Sexual behavior, sexual identity, and substance abuse among low- income bisexual and non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(5), 748–762. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10508-008-9361-x Hardick, J., Hsieh, Y. H., Tulloch, S., Kus, J., Tawes, J., & Gaydos, C. A. (2003). Surveil- lance of chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in women in detention in Baltimore, Maryland. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30(1), 64–70. Jennings, J. M., Curriero, F. C., Celentano, D., & Ellen, J. M. (2005). Geographic identi- fication of high gonorrhea transmission areas in Baltimore, Maryland. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161(1), 73–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwi012 Jones, K. T., Gray, P., Whiteside, Y. O., et al. (2008). Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention adapted for black men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health, 98(6), 1043–1050. Kelsall, J. E., & Diggle, P. J. (1995a). Kernal estimation of relative risk. Bernoulli, 1(1–2), 3–16. Kelsall, J. E., & Diggle, P. J. (1995b). Non-parametric estimation of spatial variation in relative risk. Statistics in Medicine, 14(21–22), 2335–2342. Koblin, B. A., Husnik, M. J., Colfax, G., Huang, Y., Madison, M., Mayer, K., et al. (2006). Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS (London, England), 20(5), 731–739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ 01.aids.0000216374.61442.55 Mansergh, G., Flores, S., Koblin, B., Hudson, S., McKirnan, D., Colfax, G. N., et al. (2008). Alcohol and drug use in the context of anal sex and other factors associated with sexually transmitted infections: Results from a multi-city study of high- risk men who have sex with men in the USA. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 84(6), 509–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.2008.031807 Mason, M. J., Valente, T. W., Coatsworth, D. J., Mennis, J., Lawrence, F., & Zelenal, P. (2010). Place-based social network quality and correlates of substance use among urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 419–427. Mayer, K. H., O'Cleirigh, C., Skeer, M., Covahey, C., Leidolf, E., Vanderwarker, R., et al. (2010). Which HIV-infected men who have sex with men in care are engaging in risky sex and acquiring sexually transmitted infections: Findings from a Boston community health centre. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 86(1), 66–70. McKirnan, D. J., Vanable, P. A., Ostrow, D. G., & Hope, B. (2001). Expectancies of sexual "escape" and sexual risk among drug and alcohol-involved gay and bisexual men. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13(1–2), 137–154. Mills, T. C., Stall, R., Pollack, L., Paul, J. P., Binson, D., Canchola, J., et al. (2001). Health- related characteristics of men who have sex with men: A comparison of those living in "gay ghettos" with those living elsewhere. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6), 980–983. Millett, G. A., Peterson, J. L., Wolitski, R. J., & Stall, R. (2006). Greater risk for HIV infection of black men who have sex with men: a critical literature review. Am J Public Health., 96(6), 1007–1019. Mimiaga, M. J., Reisner, S. L., Fontaine, Y. M., Bland, S. E., Driscoll, M. A., Isenberg, D., et al. (2010). Walking the line: Stimulant use during sex and HIV risk behav- ior among black urban MSM. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 110(1–2), 30–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.01.017 Parsons, J. T., Kutnick, A. H., Halkitis, P. N., Punzalan, J. C., & Carbonari, J. P. (2005). Sexual risk behaviors and substance use among alcohol abusing HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 37(1), 27–36. Pollock, J. A., Halkitis, P. N., Moeller, R. W., Solomon, T. M., Barton, S. C., Blachman-Forshay, J., et al. (2012). Alcohol use among young men who have sex with men. Substance Use & Misuse, 47(1), 12–21. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3109/10826084.2011.618963 R Development Core Team. (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Reisner, S. L., Mimiaga, M. J., Bland, S., Skeer, M., Cranston, K., Isenberg, D., et al. (2010). Problematic alcohol use and HIV risk among black men who have sex with men in Massachusetts. AIDS Care, 22(5), 577–587. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/09540120903311482 Rhodes, F., Deren, S., Wood, M. M., Shedlin, M. G., Carlson, R. G., Lambert, E. Y., et al. (1999). Understanding HIV risks of chronic drug-using men who have sex with men. AIDS Care, 11(6), 629–648.

Articles in this issue

Links on this page

view archives of International Journal of Drug Policy - 2014 - Volume 25 Issue 3 May 2014