International Journal of Drug Policy - 2014

Volume 25 Issue 3 May 2014

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Page 42 of 153

International Journal of Drug Policy 25 (2014) 543–555 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect International Journal of Drug Policy j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / d r u g p o Research paper Urban segregation and the US heroin market: A quantitative model of anthropological hypotheses from an inner-city drug market Daniel Rosenblum a,∗ , Fernando Montero Castrillo b , Philippe Bourgois c , Sarah Mars d , George Karandinos e , George Jay Unick f , Daniel Ciccarone d a Department of Economics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H4R2, Canada b Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, 452 Schermerhorn Extension, 1200 Amsterdam Avenue, MC 5523, New York, NY 10027, USA c Departments of Anthropology and Family Medicine & Community Practice, University of Pennsylvania, 415 Anthropology Museum, 3260 South Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6398, USA d Department of Family & Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Parnassus Heights, Box 0900 MU-3E, 500 Parnassus Avenue, MU3E, San Francisco, CA 94143-0900, USA e Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA f School of Social Work, University of Maryland at Baltimore, 525 West Redwood Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 17 April 2013 Received in revised form 16 October 2013 Accepted 6 December 2013 Keywords: Segregation Philadelphia Mixed methods Ethnography Quantitative research Ethno-epidemiology Drug economics Heroin price Heroin purity Puerto Rican a b s t r a c t Background: We hypothesize that the location of highly segregated Hispanic and in particular Puerto Rican neighborhoods can explain how Colombian-sourced heroin, which is associated with a large-scale decade long decline in heroin price and increase in purity, was able to enter and proliferate in the US. Methods: Our multidisciplinary analysis quantitatively operationalizes participant-observation ethno- graphic hypotheses informed by social science theory addressing complex political economic, historical, cultural and social processes. First, we ethnographically document the intersection of structural forces shaping Philadelphia's hypersegregated Puerto Rican community as a regional epicenter of the US heroin market. Second, we estimate the relationship between segregation and: (a) the entry of Colombian heroin into the US, and (b) the retail price per pure gram of heroin in 21 Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Results: Ethnographic evidence documents how poverty, historically-patterned antagonistic race rela- tions, an interstitial socio-cultural political and geographic linkage to both Caribbean drug trafficking routes and the United States and kinship solidarities combine to position poor Puerto Rican neigh- borhoods as commercial distribution centers for high quality, low cost Colombian heroin. Quantitative analysis shows that heroin markets in cities with highly segregated Puerto Rican communities were more quickly saturated with Colombian-sourced heroin. The level of Hispanic segregation (specifically in cities with a high level of Puerto Rican segregation) had a significant negative association with heroin price from 1990 to 2000. By contrast, there is no correlation between African-American segregation and Colombian-sourced heroin prevalence or price. Conclusion: Our iterative mixed methods dialogue allows for the development and testing of complex social science hypotheses and reduces the limitations specific to each method used in isolation. We build on prior research that assumes geographic proximity to source countries is the most important factor in determining illicit drug prices and purity, while we find more complex, potentially modifiable determinants of geographic variation in retail drug markets. We show that specific patterns of ethnic segregation, racism, poverty and the political economy of socio-cultural survival strategies combined to facilitate the entry of pure, inexpensive Colombian-sourced heroin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction Residential ethnic segregation, characteristic of so many US cities, reinforces economic inequalities and raises concerns about ∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 902 494 8945; fax: +1 902 494 6917. E-mail address: (D. Rosenblum). effects on public health (Kramer & Hogue, 2009; Williams & Collins, 2001). Inner city segregation in the US first took shape in the nineteenth century in places like San Francisco's Chinatown where Chinese immigrants, exploited as a low-cost workforce, lived in over-crowded, degraded conditions (Risse, 2012). African- American urban segregation developed in the northern United States somewhat later. Massey and Denton (1993) describe African- American segregation as a twentieth century phenomenon that 0955-3959/$ – see front matter © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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