International Journal of Drug Policy - 2014

Volume 25 Issue 3 May 2014

Issue link:

Contents of this Issue


Page 13 of 153

514 C. Morrison et al. / International Journal of Drug Policy 25 (2014) 508–515 are affected by the modifiable area unit problem (Openshaw, 1984) and aggregation bias (Hodgson, Shmulevitz, & Körkel, 1997). Our exclusion of the most populous California cities meant we omitted the areas with the greatest numbers of dispensaries (e.g. the City of Los Angeles). The associations we observed between dispensaries and higher alcohol outlet density and lower population density may be artifacts of zoning restrictions, which we were not able to adjust for in our analyses. Despite these limitations, our findings have implications for policy. Cannabis dispensaries are spatially related to market poten- tial. Jurisdictions that wish to avoid having new dispensaries (and therefore minimize any possible adverse effects associated with their operations) should actively prevent their establishment. If dispensaries are found to cause problems for local populations, the state, county and city regulators should ensure that communities with fewer resources (e.g. those with low incomes, unincorporated areas) are not burdened with disproportionately large numbers that service demand from both local and neighboring areas. Nev- ertheless, the uncertain regulatory environment and competition with a parallel black market means the industry will likely be in a constant state of change, and the consequences of such intervention should be carefully considered. One clear example (and a limita- tion of the current study) is the recent emergence of home delivery services: an innovative means of circumventing city ordinances that prohibit cannabis dispensaries from operating from shop-front stores. Future longitudinal research would permit investigation of such social, political and economic dynamics as medical cannabis markets mature, and should clarify whether dispensaries indeed cause problems for the communities in which they are located. Acknowledgments This research was supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Grant R01-DA-032715 and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Center Grant P60-AA006282. Conflict of interest None declared. References American Association for Public Opinion Research. (2002). Standard definitions: Final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys. Ann Arbor, MI: American Association for Public Opinion Research. Aoyama, Y., Murphy, J. T., & Hanson, S. (2011). Key concepts in economic geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Banerjee, A., LaScala, E., Gruenewald, P., Freisthler, B., Treno, A., & Remer, L. (2008). Social disorganization, alcohol and drug markets, and violence. In Y. F. Thomas, D. Richardson, & I. Cheung (Eds.), Geography and drug addiction. Netherlands: Springer. Barr, D. R., & Sherrill, E. T. (1999). Mean and variance of truncated normal distribu- tions. American Statistician, 53(4), 357–361. Brakman, S., Garretsen, H., & van Marrewijk, C. (2009). The new introduction to geo- graphical economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. California Police Chiefs' Association. (2009). White paper on marijuana dispensaries. Sacramento: California Police Chiefs' Association. Cunradi, C. B., Mair, C., Ponicki, W., & Remer, L. (2012). Alcohol outlet density and inti- mate partner violence-related emergency department visits. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36(5), 847–853. DiPasquale, D., & Wheaton, W. C. (1992). The markets for real estate assets and space: A conceptual framework. Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, 1, 181–197. Drug Enforcement Agency. (2011). The DEA position on marijuana. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Agency. ESRI. (2011). ArcGIS desktop: Release 10. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute. Freisthler, B. (2012). Medical marijuana dispensaries and the local ecology. Paper pre- sented at The Social Ecology of Substance Use: Theories, Models, Methods and Applications satellite meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, June 26, 2012. Fresithler, B., & Gruenewald, P. J. (2013). Paper presented at the College on Problems of Drug Dependence annual meeting, June 15 - June 20. In Medical marijuana dispensaries and marijuana use: Evidence from 50 cities in California. (submitted for publication). Freisthler, B., Gruenewald, P. J., Remer, L. G., Lery, B., & Needell, B. (2007). Exploring the spatial dynamics of alcohol outlets and Child Protective Services referrals, substantiations and foster care entries. Child Maltreatment, 12, 114–124. Freisthler, B., Kepple, N., Sims, R., & Martin, S. (2012). Evaluating medical marijuana dispensary policies: Spatial methods for the study of environmentally-based interventions. American Journal of Community Psychology (Epub ahead of print). Freisthler, B., & Weiss, R. E. (2008). Using Bayesian space–time models to understand the substance use environment and risk for being referred to Child Protective Services. Substance Use & Misuse Special Issue, 43(2), 239–251. Galea, S., Ahern, J., Tracy, M., & Vlahov, D. (2007). Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(6 Suppl.), S192–S202. GeoLytics, Inc. (2010). Annual estimates 2001–2010. East Brunswick, NJ: GeoLytics, Inc. Gruenewald, P. J. (2008). Why do alcohol outlets matter anyway? Addiction, 103, 1585–1587. Gruenewald, P. J. (2011). Regulating availability: How access to alcohol affects drinking and problems in youth and adults. Alcohol Research & Health, 34(2), 250–259. Gruenewald, P. J., Millar, A., Ponicki, W. R., & Brinkley, G. (2000). Physical and eco- nomic access to alcohol: The application of geostatistical methods to small area analysis in community settings. In R. Wilson, & M. DuFour (Eds.), Small Area Anal- ysis and the Epidemiology of Alcohol Problems NIAAA Monograph #36 (pp. 63–212). Rockville, MD: NIAAA. Gruenewald, P. J., & Remer, L. (2006). Changes in outlet densities affect violence rates. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 30(7), 1184–1193. Hanson, G. H. (2005). Market potential, increasing returns and geographic concen- tration. Journal of International Economics, 67(1), 1–24. Harper, S., Strumpf, E. C., & Kaufman, J. S. (2012). Do medical marijuana laws increase marijuana use? replication study and extension. Annals of Epidemiology, 22(3), 207–212. Harris, C. D. (1954). The market as a factor in the localization of industry in the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 44(4), 315–348. Hodgson, M. J., Shmulevitz, F., & Körkel, M. (1997). Aggregation error effects on the discrete-space p-median model: The case of Edmonton, Canada. Canadian Geographer, 41(4), 415–428. Hotelling, H. (1929). Stability in competition. Economic Journal, 39(153), 41–57. Kepple, N., & Freisthler, B. (2012). Exploring the ecological association between crime and medical marijuana dispensaries. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(4), 523–530. Kerr, W. C., Greenfield, T. K., Bond, J., Ye, Y., & Rehm, J. (2007). Age-period-cohort influences on trends in past year marijuana use in the US from the 1984, 1990, 1995 and 2000 National Alcohol Surveys. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 86(2–3), 132–138. LaVeist, T. A., & Wallace, J. M., Jr. (2000). Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in African American neighborhood. Social Science & Medicine, 51(4), 613–617. Linthicum, K., & Blankstein, A. (2012). U.S. raids L.A. marijuana shops. Los Ange- les Times. Retrieved from medical-marijuana-20120926 Livingston, M. (2008). A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and assault. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32(6), 1074–1079. Livingston, M. (2011). A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and domestic violence. Addiction, 106, 919–925. Livingston, M. (2012). The social gradient of alcohol availability in Victoria, Australia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(1), 41–47. Lunn, D. J., Thomas, A., Best, N., & Spiegelhalter, D. (2000). WinBUGS-A Bayesian modelling framework: Concepts, structure and extensibility. Statistics and Com- puting, 10, 325–337. Mair, C., Gruenewald, P. J., Ponicki, W. R., & Remer, L. (2013). Varying impacts of alcohol outlet densities on violent assaults: Explaining differences across neigh- borhoods. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74(1), 50–58. McMillan, G. P., Hanson, T. E., & Lapham, S. C. (2007). Geographic variability in alcohol-related crashes in response to legalized Sunday packaged alcohol sales in New Mexico. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(2), 252–257. Openshaw, S. (1984). The modifiable areal unit problem. Norwich, England: Geobooks. O'Sullivan, A. (2007). Urban economics (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Paddock, S. M., Kilmer, B., Caulkins, J. P., Booth, M. J., Pacula, R. L., & Liccardo, R. (2012). An epidemiological model for examining marijuana use over the life course. Epidemiology Research International, 2012, 12. Article ID 520894. Paschall, M. J., Grube, J. W., Thomas, S., Cannon, C., & Treffers, R. (2012). Relationships between local enforcement, alcohol availability, drinking norms, and adolescent alcohol use in 50 California cities. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(4), 657–665. Ponicki, W. R., Gruenewald, P. J., & Remer, L. G. (2013). Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999–2008. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 55, 135–143. Romley, J., Cohen, D., Ringel, J., & Sturm, R. (2007). Alcohol and environmental justice: The density of liquor stores and bars in urban neighborhoods in the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 48–55. Skogan, W. G. (1990). Disorder and decline: Crime and the spiral of decay in American neighborhoods. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. StataCorp. (2007). Stata statistical software: Release 10. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.

Articles in this issue

Links on this page

view archives of International Journal of Drug Policy - 2014 - Volume 25 Issue 3 May 2014